Don't Ignore These Diabetes Symptoms Do You Know the Causes of Diabetes? Are You at Risk for Diabetes Complications?

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body consumes blood sugar (glucose). And glucose is an important source of energy supply to the cells that make up muscles and tissues. It is also the main source of energy supply to the brain.

The main cause of diabetes mellitus varies depending on its type. But regardless of the type of diabetes you have, it can trigger an increase in your blood sugar level. Thus, an excessive increase in the level of sugar in the blood can lead to serious health problems.

Cases of chronic diabetes mellitus include the first and second types of the disease. Treatable cases of diabetes mellitus include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes develops when blood sugar levels rise above the normal range. But this increase is not so significant that it can be diagnosed as diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes can lead to diabetes unless you follow the necessary steps to prevent it. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but disappears after childbirth.


The symptoms of diabetes depend on how high the blood sugar level is.Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type II diabetes, may have no symptoms. In the case of Type I diabetes, the symptoms usually appear quickly and are more severe.

Symptoms of Type I and Type II diabetes include:

*feeling more thirsty than usual.

*Frequent urination.

*losing weight without meaning to

*The presence of ketones in the urine Ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body.

*Feeling tired and weak.

*Easy excitability or other mood swings

*Blurry vision.

*Slow healing of sores

*having a lot of infections, such as gum, skin, and vaginal infections.

Type I diabetes can begin to develop at any age. But it appears most often in childhood or adolescence. As for Type II diabetes, which is the most common type, it can begin to develop at any age. But it is most common among people over the age of 40.

When to visit a doctor

If you think that you or your child has diabetes and notice the appearance of the above symptoms, contact your doctor. The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the more satisfactory the treatment results will be.

If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, you will need careful medical follow-up until your blood sugar levels stabilize.


To understand diabetes mellitus, it is important to understand how the body normally uses glucose.

How insulin works

Insulin is a hormone produced by a gland located behind and under the stomach (the pancreas).

*The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream.

*Insulin spreads to allow sugar to enter the cells.

*Insulin lowers the amount of sugar present in the bloodstream.

*With a low blood sugar level, insulin secretion from the pancreas also decreases.

The role of glucose

Glucose, or sugar, is a major source of energy supply to the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.

*Glucose comes from two main sources, namely food and the liver.

*Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters the cells with the help of insulin.

*The liver stores and produces glucose.

*When glucose levels are low, such as when you don't eat for a long time, the liver breaks down stored glycogen and converts it into glucose. This keeps the glucose level within the normal range.

The exact cause of most types of diabetes mellitus is not yet known. Sugar accumulates in the bloodstream in all cases. This is due to the fact that the pancreas does not secrete a sufficient amount of insulin. The development of the first and second types of diabetes mellitus may occur due to a combination of genetic or environmental factors. These factors are not yet clear.

Risk factors

The risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus depend on its type. A family history of the disease plays a role in all types. Environmental and geographical factors can also increase the risk of developing Type I diabetes.

Family members of people with Type I diabetes sometimes undergo examinations for the presence of anti-diabetic immune cells (autoantibodies). If you have these autoantibodies, then you are one of the groups most at risk of developing Type I diabetes. But not everyone who has these autoantibodies is at risk of developing diabetes.

Belonging to a certain race or ethnic origin can also increase the likelihood of developing Type II diabetes. Some people, including black people, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asian Americans, are more susceptible to it, although the reason for this is not clearly known.

Prediabetes, type II diabetes, and gestational diabetes are also common among overweight or obese people.


Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually. The longer you have diabetes — and the lower your blood sugar — the higher the risk of complications. And in the end, complications of diabetes can lead to disability or even life-threatening. In fact, prediabetes can lead to the development of Type II diabetes. Among its possible complications are the following:

*Cardiovascular disease. Diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing many heart problems. Those diseases can include coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina pectoris), heart attack, stroke, and narrowing (atherosclerosis) of the arteries. If you have diabetes, you are more at risk of heart disease or stroke.

*Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar damages the walls of small blood vessels (capillaries) that supply nerves, especially in the legs. This may cause a feeling of necrosis, numbness, burning, or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upwards.

Nerve damage associated with digestion can cause problems such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation. And for men, this can lead to erectile dysfunction.

*Kidney damage. The kidney contains millions of tiny vascular assemblies (glomeruli) that purify waste products from the blood. And diabetes mellitus can damage the kidneys' microfiltration system.Damage to the eyes (retinopathy). Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the eye (diabetic retinopathy). and this can lead to blindness.

*Damage to the eyes (retinopathy). Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the eye (diabetic retinopathy). and this can lead to blindness.

*Foot damage. Nerve damage to the foot or impaired blood flow to the foot increases the risk of many complications in the feet.

*Diseases of the skin and mouth .Diabetes may make you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.

*Hearing impairment. Hearing problems are more common among people with diabetes.

*Alzheimer's disease. Type II diabetes may increase the risk of developing dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease.

*Depression. Symptoms of depression are common in people with diabetes of the first and second types.

Complications of gestational diabetes

Most women with gestational diabetes give birth to healthy babies. But high and untreated blood sugar levels can cause problems for you and your baby.

As a result of your gestational diabetes, your child may experience the following complications:

*Overgrowth. Excess glucose can pass through the placenta. This excess glucose stimulates your baby's pancreas to produce more insulin. This may increase your child's development too much. It causes obstructed childbirth and sometimes the need for a cesarean section.

*Low blood sugar. In some cases, children of a mother with gestational diabetes develop a decrease in blood sugar shortly after birth. This is due to their high insulin production.

*Developing Type II diabetes at a later age. Children of mothers with gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of developing obesity and Type II diabetes mellitus at a later age stage.

*Death. Untreated gestational diabetes can lead to the death of an infant, both before birth and shortly after.

Complications may also appear on the mother as a result of gestational diabetes, including the following:

*Preeclampsia preeclampsia. Symptoms of developing this condition include high blood pressure, the presence of protein in the urine in excess, swelling of the legs and feet.

*Gestational diabetes. If you have had gestational diabetes once, it is likely that you will have it again in the next pregnancy.


Type I diabetes cannot be avoided. But healthy lifestyle choices that help treat prediabetes, type II diabetes, and gestational diabetes may also be useful in preventing these diseases, and these options include the following:

*Eat healthy foods. Choose foods that are low in fat and calories and rich in fiber. Focus on eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. And eat a variety of foods to avoid getting bored.

*Practice more physical activities. Aim for 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity every day, most days of the week. Or make it your goal to do moderate aerobic activity for 150 minutes a week. For example, enjoy a brisk walk daily. And if long-term exercise does not suit you, divide the duration of the workout into shorter intervals throughout the day.

*Getting rid of excess weight If you are overweight, you can reduce the risk of diabetes by losing 7% of your body weight. For example, if you weigh 200 pounds (90.7 kilograms), losing 14 pounds (6.4 kilograms) of your weight can reduce your risk of diabetes.

But weight loss during pregnancy should be avoided. A pregnant woman should talk to her doctor about the appropriate weight gain for her health during pregnancy.

To keep your weight within a healthy range, focus on making long-term changes in your eating and exercise habits. Remember the benefits of losing weight, such as maintaining a healthy heart, getting more energy, and boosting self-satisfaction.

Sometimes medications are among the available options. Oral diabetes medications such as metformin (Glumetza, Fortamet, and others) may reduce the risk of developing Type II diabetes. But healthy lifestyle choices are important. If you have prediabetes, check your blood sugar at least once a year to make sure you don't have Type II diabetes.

Health & beauty
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